The overall objective of the study was to analyse the effectiveness of incentives in changing the environmental behaviour of companies (including the effects of different mixes of incentives). The research therefore focused on analysing and understanding how incentives work, what different factors play a role in determining outcomes and what lessons might be learned as a result. We were interested particularly in what steps the EU and other policy makers should take in future to provide better incentives to firms, so that they decide to improve their environmental performance. Specifically, it considered the role and contribution of a potential organisational environmental footprinting (OEF) initiative in the area of incentive design